In his indictment dated July 11, 1996, the Prosecutor of ICTR charges Anatole Nsengiyumva with 4 counts:
direct and public incitement to commit genocide, crimes against Humanity, and violations of article 3 common to the Geneva Conventions and of additional Protocol II.
In the above indictment it is said that: « Anatole Nsengiyumva was born on September 4, 1950 in Satinsya commune, Gisenyi prefecture, which is located in northwestern Rwanda. At the time of the events referred to the indictement of the Prosecutor, he was a lieutenant-colonel in the Rwandan Armed Forces and served as commander of military operations in Gisenyi prefecture, a position to which he was appointed on June 13, 1993 ».
« On the morning of April 7, 1994, Colonel Anatole Nsengiyumva presided over a meeting in Gisenyi prefecture, during which he ordered the participants to organize the killing of civilians. During the months of April through June 1994, Colonel Anatole Nsengiyumva presided over meetings of several hundred interahamwe militia at Umuganda stadium in Gisenyi prefecture, where he urged those in attendance to resume the killing of Tutsis ».
Anatole Nsengiyumva was arrested in the territory of the Republic of Cameroon by the Cameroonian authorities. The accused was transferred to the prison of the ICTR located in Arusha. on 23 January 1997.
During the initial appearance, on February 19 1997, Anatole Nsengiyumva pleaded not guilty.